MARTINO and SQUILLACE — My 4th great-grandfather was a Martino from Gioiosa Ionica.   Another family from the adjacent village of Grotteria, with surname Squillace, also tested for the Calabria DNA Project.   Both the Martino and Squillace Y-DNA results matched each other, indicating that they originated from the same ancestor.   This is not too far fetched being that both of these families came from  two small adjacent villages (Gioiosa Ionica and Grotteria  respectively), each with a population of about 3000 people . The Martino/Squillace Y-DNA, which was inherited from my Martino/Squillace ancestor  virtually unchanged from 1000s of years ago, place him overall on branch T of the Human Male Family Tree.  All men today who are on Branch T of the Human Male Family tree are positive for the M272 mutation, and descend from this one man who originally carried this mutation.   This mutation happened 1000s of years ago in the Middle East or the Horn of Africa.   Since then, extra mutations have accumulated on the Y-chromosome, and broken up  Haplogroup T men into sub-branches.  (Haplogroup is just another name for “branch”).  The  specific Haplogroup designation of my Martino/Squillace ancestor is T1a2 (with terminal mutation P77+).   To see this specific sub-branch, click on the link Human Male Family Tree and go to Branch T.   Put your cursor over the letter  “T” and an arrow should pop up.  Click on that arrow.  That will take you to the sub-divisions of Branch T and then find the sub-branch with the P77 mutation.    Scientists think that this  more recent mutation of P77 occured recently in the Middle East or Horn of Africa.    Today, you still find most Haplogroup T1a2 men in this area.   My Martino ancestor came from this part of the world.   You can read more about Haplogroup T1a2 and and the associated P77 mutation here on Wikipedia’s website.

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