PAPALLO – My great-grandfather was a Papallo from Martone. To find the origin of the Papallo male line, see I had to find a Papallo male cousin who was willing to test for me. The Papallo Y-DNA, viagra which was inherited from my Papallo ancestor virtually unchanged from 1000s of years ago, diagnosis place him overall on branch R of the Human Male Family Tree. All men today who are on Branch R of the Human Male Family tree are positive for the P-M45 mutation, and descend from this one man who originally carried this mutation. This mutation happened about 20,000 years ago. Since then, extra mutations have accumulated on the Y-chromosome, and broken up Haplogroup R men into sub-branches. (Haplogroup is just another name for “branch”). The specific Haplogroup designation of my Papallo ancestor is R1a1a1g (with terminal mutation M458). To see this specific sub-branch, click on the link Human Male Family Tree and go to Branch R. Put your cursor over the letter “R” and an arrow should pop up. Click on that arrow. That will take you to the sub-divisions of Branch R and then find the sub-branch with the M458 mutation. Scientists think that this more recent mutation of M458 occured recently in the Slavic speaking countries. Today, you still find most Haplogroup R1a1a1g men in Eastern Europe and in the surrounding areas. My Papallo ancestor came from this part of the world. You can read more about Haplogroup R1a1a1g and and the associated M458 mutation here on Wikipedia’s website.