VUMBACA —  My great-great-great grandfather was a Vumbaca from Martone.   To find the origin of the Vumbaca male line, I had to find a Vumbaca male cousin who was willing to test for me.   The Vumbaca Y-DNA, which was inherited from my Vumbaca ancestor virtually unchanged from 1000s of years ago, place him overall on branch E of the Human Male Family Tree.  All men today who are on Branch E of the Human Male Family tree are positive for the M96 mutation, and descend from this one man who originally carried this mutation.  This mutation happened 1000s of years ago in either East Africa or the Middle East.  Since then, extra mutations have accumulated on the Y-chromosome, and broken up  Haplogroup E men into sub-branches.  (Haplogroup is just another name for “branch”).  The specific Haplogroup designation of my Vumbaca ancestor is E1b1b1a1c* (with terminal mutation V22+).   To see this specific sub-branch, click on the link Human Male Family Tree and go to Branch E.  Put your cursor over the letter  “E” and an arrow should pop up.  Click on that arrow.  That will take you to the sub-divisions of Branch E and then find the sub-branch with the V22 mutation.    Scientists think that this  more recent mutation of V22 occured several thousand years ago in the Horn of Africa or Egypt maybe.    Today, you still find most Haplogroup E1b1b1a1c* men in Eastern Africa, and in the surrounding areas.   My Vumbaca ancestor came from this part of the world.   You can read more about Haplogroup E1b1b1a1c* and the associated V22 mutation here on Wikipedia’s website.

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